The new characters include hearing aids, wheelchairs, prosthetic limbs, white "probing" canes and guide dogs.
They follow a complaint by Apple that few existing emojis spoke to the experiences of those with disabilities.
Their inclusion in 2019's official list means many smartphones should gain them in the second half of the year.
"Social media is hugely influential and it's great to see these new disability-inclusive emojis," said Phil Talbot, from the disability charity Scope.
"Up to now, disability has been greatly underrepresented. "We'd also like to see greater representation of disabled people and disability across all parts of the media and social media."
A total of 230 new emojis feature in what is the sixth major update to the official list.
It is maintained by a California-based group made up of representatives of computing companies, software developers and others, who ensure that users of different devices and apps can send emojis to each other. The various platform owners - including Apple, Google, Microsoft, Samsung, Facebook and Twitter - can tweak Unicode's designs to their own liking but are supposed to ensure that each character remains recognisable from one product to another.
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